Sleep: A Tale of Two Fighters

Left to right: Yours truly, Mikey Garcia, Brandon Rios, Alex Ariza

It’s not uncommon for a client to seem like he’s doing everything right—tracking his food, monitoring his heart rate, mapping out his training—and yet his progress has stalled out.  There are many other stressors to consider but one of the first ones I go to is sleep. 

In 2013, Alex Ariza and I inadvertently ran a little experiment on sleep.  We had two fighters with fights very close to each other, so they did their entire training camp together and identically.  Mikey started out at 9% body fat.  Brandon started at 13%.  Usually, a person with more to lose will lose faster than someone with less, but that wasn’t the case.  Mikey plummeted immediately from 9% to 4%–that’s 5 percentage points in 4 weeks. Brandon, who we’d have expected to lose more starting from the higher percentage, actually took longer.  Almost 6 weeks to lose the same amount—from 13% to 8% and we didn’t really see anything happen until week 5.  Unlike Mikey, who lost immediately, Brandon’s progress was very slow considering his higher starting point.  While Mikey’s progress was significant and steady every week, Brandon’s virtually stalled out at 11% and then at 10%.

What was the difference? Sleep.  While it’s true other factors may have been at work, the variables of exercise and food were pretty well controlled.  Remember both fighters were training together.  They got up at the same time, did the same 6 AM track workout together, ate the same things at the same time, went to the same afternoon gym workouts.  We know this because Alex lived with them during camp.  They would come to my office , weigh-in and pinch, and then Alex would hand them both the same post-workout meal.  

But the one thing Alex couldn’t control for was sleep.  You can’t make a guy go to sleep if he can’t or doesn’t want to.  So Mikey would do his 6 AM run, eat, and take a 2-hr nap before heading to the gym in the afternoon.  Brandon stayed awake.  Mikey was in bed and asleep by 10.  Brandon would stay up until midnight playing video games.  He just couldn’t sleep.  And it stalled out his body-comp progress.  The reasons for this are legion—sleep deprivation causes impaired immune function, inflammation, insulin resistance.  Brandon didn’t really make significant progress until Week 5–when he finally crashed and went to sleep!  He started taking the 2-hr naps.  He fell asleep early at night.  He immediately dropped 2%.  

Mikey’s body comp on the left. Brandon’s on the right. The numbers don’t lie…

So, no, while we didn’t run this experiment in a sleep lab or control for nutritional deficiencies—heck, we didn’t even set out to run an experiment—based on the body comp data and the timing of Brandon’s eventual progress with his finally crashing, our little accidental experiment does make a pretty strong case for sleep as a significant contributor to body comp.  If the processes that normally occur during sleep—tissue repair, immune function, detoxification—aren’t happening, we end up with increased inflammation, edema, and altered metabolism.    There are other things to consider as well–including impaired brain function, neurotransmitters imbalance, stress hormones–but poor sleep often occurs in clusters with these factors. And setting yourself up for good sleep through consistent habits and controlling your environment can go a long way towards fixing all of them. 

What, Me Worried?! A Metrics of Stress Case Study


Last week a client of mine came in whose numbers were seemingly inexplicably up.  I hadn’t seen him for quite a while and since he is usually 6-7% body fat it, he was quite dismayed by the numbers which had popped up to 12%.  He said he’d been eating the same and exercising as always and couldn’t understand how he could be up.  So I asked him what had been going on since I’d last seen him and he told me he was finalizing his divorce.  This on top of his day gig of running a billion-dollar private equity firm.  I gently suggested that his numbers may be attributable to stress.  “What?!” he snapped.  “I’m NOT STRESSED!”  Umm, okay, if you say so…”

I explained to him that with skinfold calipers, we can get inflated numbers because when we’re stressed the adrenals are overworked.  The adrenals maintain fluid balance so when they’re doing overtime we end up with some edema.  Of course, if stress is chronic, elevated cortisol also contributes to accumulation of body fat as well.

Some people handle their stress very well but may not be aware of how it’s affecting them physiologically.  This is where metrics can be invaluable for showing a client where he/she’s at and can be the factor in motivating them to change their behavior.

Kathy's Chart

My client Kathy is an excellent example of how important metrics can be.  If we take a look at her body composition chart you’ll see she made great progress but not without a few blips along the way.  This is real life.  But what’s so fantastic about Kathy is that she tracked all her food and exercise, and she wore a FitBit all day.  Since she was following everything to the letter most of the time, if one variable was out of whack, we were able to isolate it as the culprit.

So on Kathy’s chart we can see she was doing fine until Week 5 when her menstrual cycle showed up.  This is pretty common and will affect body composition due to water retention from increased inflammation.  It’s interesting to note that this was not a factor for the rest of her chart.  This isn’t surprising since one of the benefits of getting blood sugars under control is reduced inflammation, which in turn will reduce premenstrual symptoms.  We also see blips in weeks 21-24 due to overtraining, which is a subject we’ll address in another entry.

Of more interest for our discussion of psychological stress, however, are Weeks 11-15.   Kathy had done amazingly well, plummeting from 29% to almost 12% body fat.  Until the month of April killed us and she popped up as high as 17%.  Why?  Well, a job opportunity came up that Kathy really wanted.  She really, really, really wanted this gig.  And in April the interview process started.  A lot of people don’t believe me when I say stress may be the cause of elevated “body fat” numbers—whether from actual body fat or water retention.  But in this case, we had some amazing data because Kathy was wearing a FitBit the whole time.  So I asked her for some random screen captures of her heart rate during those weeks.


You can see that April 7 is our baseline day before she found out about this job opportunity.  Her heart rate throughout the day never really peaks past 100 until her evening exercise class where she topped out in the 130’s.  The second week her heart rate (not counting the evening exercise elevation) spikes past 100 twice and BPM’s are closer to 100 throughout the day.  The third week—and she’s in the thick of the interview process by now—heart rate spikes past 100 4 times and a little higher between spikes as well.  The fourth screenshot she surpasses 100 BPM 5 times and heartrate is considerably elevated between spikes.  And the fifth screen shot is the day of the final interview.  Her heart rate is almost 150 while NOT exercising!

Baseline Heart rate under 100 except during exercise in the evening.

Kathy just found out about job opportunity. Heart rate starting to peak past 100 during the day.

Job interview process has started. Heart rate spiking past 100 at more points.

Well into the interview process.

Final interview. Heart rate is almost 150 during the actual interview!

This story, at least, has a happy ending.  Kathy got the job and she made a full body composition recovery two weeks after.  I was thrilled that she had the metrics for the month because they show:

  • That even GOOD stress (she really wanted that job!) can still affect the body adversely. Over-stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system still taxes the adrenals.  Sometimes clients say they are stress-free because it’s not negative stress as we’ve just seen, eustress—good stuff—still has a physiological effect.


  • Over stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system (stress) really does affect you physically! And skinfold calipers, though old school, are a great way to observe the adverse effects stress can have on your body composition.  Wild fluctuations in body comp can indicate fluid imbalance due to adrenal and lymphatic overload.

Just telling my clients that stress will make them fat or, in the short term, appear so is often too abstract for them to prompt behavioral changes.  They’ve heard stress does these things to the body—“yeah, yeah, yeah.”  But metrics make all of this tangible.  With a few simple tools—a heart rate monitor and caliper measurements–you can observe the effects of sympathetic nervous system overdrive on the body.  Simple metrics can be a great motivator to make big lifestyle changes.

Story with a happy ending: Kathy at her new job!


Adrenals, Schmenals! Part 1

For years, my acupuncturist would take my pulse and say, “What’s going on with your adrenals?  You shouldn’t get up so early and run around the basketball court for an hour and a half at 6 AM.”  To which she would add, “That’s okay, my adrenals are shot, too.”  Yeah, yeah, yeah, adrenals, schmenals.  Stress can be a very abstract concept.

Some clients handle their stress quite well.  They’re accustomed to dealing with a certain level and that becomes their new norm.  But they may not realize that it’s affecting their physiology, regardless.  So you can tell the client that they’re stressed and they may even admit it, but what exactly does being “stressed” mean in terms of how it’s affecting your body?  This is where hormone testing (along with caliper testing) can be helpful in convincing the client to change their behavior.

The numbers don’t lie.  And in my case (above), they weren’t pretty either.

Cortisol, if you haven’t heard, is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal glands.  It wasn’t until I saw my own results, that I realized how high my cortisol levels were—ahem…OFF THE CHARTS!!!  And guess when it was the highest?  At 6 AM when I was on the basketball court.  I started sleeping in from there on out and moved my workouts to midday and the afternoon.  Prior to testing, I only had a vague notion of how under sleeping and overtraining were affecting my health.  It wasn’t until I saw just how bad it was (OFF THE CHARTS!) and that it was a real, tangible, measurable thing that I changed my behavior.  I lost 8 pounds of water immediately.

If you have a sneaking suspicion that you may be pushing too hard on all cylinders and would like to know where you stand, you might just want to give stress hormone testing a whirl.  Having some solid numbers on which to base decisions can sometimes move you faster towards better health.

Food Quality Part 2: The Highlight Reel

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Last week, I introduced you to my client David and presented his body composition chart.  While the caliper numbers go into a formula for body fat, remember such reactively inflated numbers are usually the result of inflammation due to food intolerances or impurities.  When I mention “body fat,” I am referring to body fat but also the fluid that can be measured with the calipers.

Let’s take a look at some of the highlights of David’s chart.  The follow-up’s have been condensed to fit everything on one chart.  So if I refer to a follow-up number, know that several weeks may have passed prior to that follow-up during which body composition remained the same.   These status quo weeks are not shown on this chart.

  1. At the start of this run, David was coming off a lot of work stress. This reduced his hydrochloric acid production, which disrupted his pH balance.  A gut protocol of botanical supplements got his digestion back on track and immediately brought us to less than 8% body fat.
  2. There is a spike at follow-up 7. A few years ago, David had done a food intolerances test which revealed a high intolerance to dairy.  When he went back to a whey protein powder he still had a reaction and spiked up  in body comp from the 7’s to almost 9% body fat.
  3. Not wanting to throw away the entire tub of protein he’d just bought, he took used the whey powder half the time and substituted the other half with a vegan powder and his numbers immediately came back down.
  4. We had a slight pop up at follow-up 9 when David had a protein bar several times that week. When he looked up the ingredients, turns out it had whey protein in it.
  5. The week of follow-up 11, he finally completely cut out the whey powder and reached what was at that time, a record low in the high 6’s.
  6. At follow-up 12, David forgot about the moderate intolerance he’d had to almonds. This is further proof that even if you lay off a food for which you have an intolerance, you still may not be able to eat it every day.  In this case, David’s numbers spiked almost two full percentage points.
  7. Follow-up 16 illustrates why I’m such a stickler for obtaining Certificates of Analysis for supplements. Turns out that David thought he’d try another protein powder—not one of the two that I recommend.  He spiked almost two full percentage points.  Why?  When we looked at the ingredients, I won’t name brand names, but despite listing a bajillion “organic” ingredients, this powder also contains erythritol and guar gum.  These can be very highly inflammatory to the gut and may have contributed to the spike.  But we also don’t have a COA for this product and, therefore, don’t know what levels of heavy metals may be present.  Metals are a very common problem for vegan powders and not also cause inflammation  but disrupt fat burning as well.
  8. I was so proud of David during the week of follow-up 21. He finally gave up gluten!  His mother is Swedish so giving up bread was a big deal and I’d been working on him for years on this.  As you can see this was a record low and got us into the 5% range.
  9. Things were going quite swimmingly until follow up 22. David’s percentage jumped a one and a half points.  Since he rarely eats out it was easy to pinpoint the steak salad he’d had the day before.  I asked if it was grassfed.    Hmm…
  10. The next spike came about a month later. This time he zoomed from 6.5% all the way past 10%!  The culprit was a non-grassfed burger.  This was the second time that a grainfed burger obviously didn’t agree with David.  Sure enough, three months later we redid his food intolerances test which revealed a moderate intolerance to corn gluten.  Technically, there is no gluten in corn but this is the name for a processed form of corn that used to feed livestock.

Phew!  And these were just the highlight excerpts of David’s charts, you can see that not knowing how your body reacts to certain foods and additives can seriously hinder not only your body composition progress but your overall health as well.  The spikes on these charts are indicators of inflammation and we all know the litany of detrimental effects caused by inflammation.  So the next time you’re about to ignore the quality of your food, think about this highlight reel and remember this seemingly insignificant variable is actually the most important one.




Food Quality Part 1: “Little things make big things happen.”—John Wooden

Coach Wooden: “There are no big things, only alogical accumulation of little things done at a very high standard of performance.”

These days my biggest pet peeve is when people reflexively dismiss the importance of food quality.  My initial approach to the subject is often met with rolling eyes and a knee-jerk assumption that I’m some sort of food Nazi.  We’ve been incorrectly brainwashed for so long to think that calorie intake and maronutrient ratios are the only things that matter and that the effect of food quality is only minimal.  The exact opposite is true.  Instead of counting calories and calculating ratios all day, you get much more bang for buck simply by cleaning up your food sources.

I understand.  Talk of organic produce, heavy metal contamination, endocrine disrupting pesticides, damaging additives, food intolerances, and inflammatory grains is very abstract.  Yeah, yeah, yeah, it sounds good but what effect do all those things really have?  Well, as Coach Wooden would say, those little things add up to something very big.

This is when data is really necessary.  Tangible numbers enable clients to see the results of their actions and convince them to change their behavior.  One of my favorite examples to show new clients David G’s chart.  David’s been a client of mine for about 8 years now.  He comes in once a week and has kept strict records of his diet and exercise for the entire time.  I don’t require that kind of dedication from all my clients but it’s awesome because his consistency week in and week out make working with him a fantastic science experiment.  He’s so good at keeping all the variables in place that if his numbers pop up, we can usually pinpoint the one thing that made things go wonky.

The irony is that David didn’t initially believe in the validity of food quality either.  But after spending so much time watching macronutrients and calories and still not understanding why numbers would go up or down, he decided to play around with food sources.  As you’ll recall from my post about body composition, the calipers are an excellent tool for measuring inflammation.  If there’s a food intolerance, impurity, or additive causing inflammation, it will result in water retention that is picked up by the calipers.  While the inflated number is water and not fat, 1) the bloat looks like fat and nobody wants that and 2) prolonged inflammation will result in metabolic disorders that will result in body fat accumulation as well as water retention.

From his chart, you can see how sensitive David’s body comp is to even slight changes in his diet.  Next week we’ll discuss each event in more detail.

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The Russians Used Pencil: Measuring Body Composition Part 2

Skinfold calipers: sometimes Old School really is better.

The Lowly Caliper Measures More than Body Comp

Last week, we looked at the shortcomings of methods for measuring body fat.   I’ve always leaned on calipers but in recent years I’ve started to like them for the very reason they are criticized.  Detractors will say that because when you measure with calipers, you are measuring everything under the skin.  Yes, fat, but this also includes water.  Critics will say this means that calipers aren’t accurate.  Not for measuring body fat, perhaps.  But the fact that they measure water under the skin makes them an invaluable tool.

Why?  Any stressor—lack of sleep, alcohol, high blood sugar, psychological stress, toxins, lack of sunlight, antigens, overtraining—will tax the adrenals, causing inflammation.  Since the adrenals are responsible for water balance, any sudden, significant increase in a skinfold measurement can likely be attributed to the adrenals working overtime.  Calipers actually help me pinpoint which foods and lifestyle factors cause inflammation in a client.  So the very thing that’s always been cited as the major shortcoming of the calipers actually make them a more informative tool than the other measurement methods.  Blood and cortisol tests would be too cost prohibitive to run on a weekly basis.  With calipers, though, I’ve been able to determine food intolerances and training thresholds conveniently and cost effectively from week to week.

While some love to poo poo the fact that calipers don’t give an accurate fat measurement because they don’t account for edema, water retention from inflammation is often more of an aesthetic issue than actual body fat is!  Get rid of the bloat and clients are already happier with their appearance.  And, of course, chronic inflammation leads to metabolic disorders, elevated cortisol, and increased body fat.  So even if the calipers are not measuring precisely only body fat all the time, they can provide invaluable clues as to what is causing inflammation.